Sunday, March 8, 2009
Bayanihan is an example of an old tradition that expresses the spirit of unity.

A pagta too expresses the spirit of unity between former warring tribes. By entering into pagta, the parties thereto intend to unify themselves for their mutual aid and protection. Breach thereof detroys the unity and results to division and contention.

Here are sample pictures of tribal weapons used in case there are contentions.

A picture of full-geared Kalinga warriors. A sample of an actual size of the common head axe of the kalingas.
posted by Leusen at 6:40 PM | 0 comments
Tuesday, March 3, 2009
Every sort of conflict started with misunderstanding.

What was intended was misunderstood.

Since intentions are inherently invisible and they belong to the realm of the mind of a person, how would an ordinary person judge another person's intentions?

In order to judge the intent of a person, the Philippine Laws and Philippine Jurisprudence ('jurisprudence' are the rationales of those cases that have been decided by the Supreme Court of the Philippines), tell us that 'the index of intention is action.' Thus, every intention is judged by the acts of the parties. All acts before, during, and after the forging of an agreement and even the contemporaneous acts of the parties are also judged in order to determine the true intention of the parties. If the parties hid their real intention, the contract is called a simulated contract. This is called relatively simulated contract. Any of the parties may go to court in order to seek reformation of the contract so that the contract may be conformed to the intention of the parties thereto. If the parties did not intend to be bound at all in said contract, it is an absolutely simulated contract. Under the New Civil Code, said contract an absolutely simulated contract is void because of the absence of consideration, which is an essential element of a contract.

In criminal laws, a person cannot become liable for anything which he merely intended to do if he did not act on it. Thus, if a person only thought of killing another person, yet has not done anything to kill the other person, there is no liability on his part for either murder or homicide.

However, under the Revised Penal Code a "felony" or translated as "crime" is defined therein as 'an act or omission punishable by law.' Even omissions, intended or not, which are punishable by law, are considered felonies. The catch is this: such act or omission MUST be punishable by law, whether by the Revised Penal Code of the Philippines or by a special penal laws, like the law against bouncing checks or BP 22. If there is no law punishing an act or omission, then there is no crime.
posted by Leusen at 10:40 PM | 1 comments
Friday, February 27, 2009
Philippine Daily Inquirer issue entitled 'BSP files P1-B syndicated estafa case vs Legacy owner' [dated February 27, 2009] shows an example of breach of trust in pre-need plans, if not "estafa" committed by a syndicate according to BSP.

There are other news on the charges against Legacy.

"Pre-need plans" are contracts which provide for the performance of future services or the payment of future monetary considerations at the time of actual need, for which planholders pay in cash or installment at stated prices, with or without interest or insurance coverage and includes life, pension, education, interment, and other plans which the Commission (Securities and Exchange Commission) may from time to time approve (Sec. 3.9 of the Securities Regulations Code [SRC]).

Those who have invested are in quandary since the closure of all Legacy companies as early as December 8, 2008 "leaving a huge number of investors empty-handed".
posted by Leusen at 12:50 AM | 0 comments
Thursday, February 19, 2009
My sister Rhoda B. Cua, owner of Crystal Waters, Bonifacio Street,Tagum City, is the person responsible for the background lay out of my blog site. Her water station is powered by Living Water Technology.
posted by Leusen at 8:48 PM | 0 comments
Wednesday, February 18, 2009
click here for sample forms in many contracts, including those of sales: ----> FORMS

Republic Act No. 386, as amended, otherwise knowm as the New Civil Code of the Philippines defines a contract of sale as follows:

" Art. 1458. By the contract of sale, one of the contracting parties (seller) obligates himself to transfer ownership of and to deliver a determinate thing, and the other (buyer) to pay therfor a price sertain in money or its equivalent."

It appears from this provision of law that the seller need not be the owner of the thing subject of the sale for as long as the thing is not yet delivered. However, he must be the owner of the thing during the delivery. In technical terms, delivery is called tradition. Tradition transfers ownership. The same provision also appears to tell the reader that if the seller, who is not the owner of the thing sold to the buyer later on became the owner of the property sold, the transfer of ownership is by operation of law.

Any comments?
posted by Leusen at 5:06 PM | 0 comments
I found this site and I think it can help:

Click here


posted by Leusen at 5:03 PM | 0 comments
Monday, February 16, 2009
I forgot to introduce myself as part of PGCAG. The list include our leaders.


posted by Leusen at 5:04 PM | 0 comments
Sunday, February 15, 2009
I studied History at the University of the Philippines at Los Baños (UPLB) during my undergraduate studies as part of our curriculum. In one of our sessions, one interesting came up: 'TRIBES IN THE HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES'. (to those who would like to study at UPLB click here for qualifications and requirements.)

One of the tribes mentioned was the IGOROTS. Our professor opined that the term "i-gorot" is a generic term for all people who are living in the outskirts of the mountains "gorot" according to him means, mountain. While the term "tagalog" or properly spelled as "taga-ilog".

Is it possible to achieve unity in the country? comments...
posted by Leusen at 5:36 PM | 2 comments
Thursday, February 5, 2009
Per request of my readers, especially, LOUIE, i will attempt to elaborate the fact of tribal war in Kalinga Province and neighboring provinces, its origins, cause and effects.

Click here for a brief introduction on the fact of tribal war in the area. You can also click here for more information.

Tribal Wars exist in Kalinga Province. Note that the name "kalinga" means, "enemy" or "fighter".

However, no one can pinpoint with certainty when tribal started in the area. What we are certain of is that tribal wars happened and they are still happening.

There are several origins of tribal wars.

The most common is territorial expansion. When the tribes expand their hunting grounds, they come in conflict with the tribes occupying the grounds to be hunted. Thus, war ensue. The reason here is survival.

My greatgrandfather told me a story of how their "fun" ended in a tribal war. They made "fun" of another villager and in the process killed the man. The other tribe wanted to retaliate and their retaliation led to a killing one of my grandfather's villagers. That killing led to another and so forth. The reason here is retaliation.

Another is Cañao, originally, a form of spirits summoning. The warriors headhunt their enemies' and success is celebrated in Cañao. Today, Cañao is known as a feast in many Cordilleran Villages. But to those who understand the original intent of a Cañao, they would see the war dances displayed during the celebration. The reason here is animism.

Regardless of whether or not tribal wars are fought by reason of survival, retaliation or animism, one thing is sure : people die. A mother mourns for her husband or for her son. Or a son cries for his father. Or a father for his son.

Recent reports tell us that the system of Bodong following the rule of PAGTA or called the law of the Bdong is keeping the province peaceful.


posted by Leusen at 11:08 PM | 0 comments
after several months of silence, i'm back. :-)

Take a look at this Toyota car. Here are their terms.

My point is simple : in a transaction like buying a car, like Toyota, there is a vinculum that will be formed. This legal tie is expressed by the parties in their contract. In order to start the process, one party needs to offer and the other to accept the offer. Try to contact Toyota.

posted by Leusen at 10:58 PM | 0 comments